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The Miser


As >Molière drew via a number of ancient and modern day sources for elements in theThe Miser. The character of Harpagon draws in the Latin playAululariasimply by Plautus where the miser Euclio incessantly improvements the h >[b] monologue exaggerating the loss of his pot was the basis for Harpagon’s. As well fromAululariaMolière appropriated the love affair between Élise and Valère, Harpagon’s inspection of the hands of La Flèche, and Valère’s avowals of love pertaining to Élise that Harpagon usually takes as his confession to theft.La Superbe Pla >a number of these items can be found in the list inThe Miser. Jean Donneau de Visé’sla Mère coquette(1665) gave Molière a father and child in love with the same young girl. [citation necessary]

The perform

The play was first produced when Molière’s company was under the protection of Louis XIV. It was loosely based on the Latin comedyAululariaby Plautus, from which many inc

The miser of the subject is called Harpagon, a name adapted in the Latinharpago, meaning a hook or grappling iron. He’s obsessed with the wealth this individual has amassed and always ready to save expenses. Now a widower, this individual has a child, Cléante, and a daughter, Élise. Even though he is over sixty, he is attempting to set up a marriage between himself and an attractive small woman, Mariane. She and Cléante already are devoted to each other, however , plus the son attempts to procure financing to help her and her sick mother, who will be impoverished. Élise, Harpagon’s girl, is the beloved of Valère, but her father desires to15325 marry her to a wealthy man of his choosing, Seigneur Anselme. Meanwhile, Valère has considered a job while steward in Harpagon’s home so as to be close to Élise. The complications are only settled at the end by rather regular discovery that some of the primary characters are long lost family.

Satire and farce blend in the fast-moving plot, since when the miser’s hoard is definitely stolen. Asked by the police magistrate who he suspects, Harpagon responses, Everybody! I wish you to take into custody the whole city and suburbs (5. 1) and indicates the theatre audience while doing so. The enjoy also is fun of certain theatrical events, such as the spoken as


(Critical Survey of Literature for Students)

Valère, the steward of Harpagon’s house, is at love together with his employer’s child, Élise. Valère is sure that he is of any good family members, but until he can find his relatives he offers little desire that Harpagon will give his consent to a marriage between his girl and his steward. Harpagon is known as a miser of such wonderful avarice and stinginess that he really loves nothing but cash. He lives in constant dread that an individual will rob him of the large sum he features buried in the garden. Valère knows that his only wish lies in gaining Harpagon’s passion by excellent the old gentleman shamelessly.

Harpagon’s son, Cléante, is also in love. The thing of his love is Mariane, a poor girl who lives with her widowed mother. Cléante’s love is as hopeless while that among his sibling, Élise, and Valère. As Mariane is without money, Harpagon will not agreement to a marriage, and Cléante keeps his love pertaining to the girl coming from his dad. What this individual does not find out is that his father has seen Mariane and desires her intended for himself. He has been a widower for many years, and the young girl’s beauty makes him desire her. He or she must first, yet , secure a dowry on her; his miserliness is stronger than his love.

Élise learns by her father that, against her would like, she is to be married to Anselme, a wealthy guy fifty years of age. The fact that Anselme will need his daughter without a dowry is too good a idea for Harpagon to miss. Élise appeals to Valère to get help. The clever lad pretends to agree with her father when he whispers to her to take heart and trust him to prevent wedding ceremony. If everything else fails, this individual and Élise will flee from the residence and be married without her father’s approval.

Cléante is very determined to marry Mariane that this individual arranges with an agent to borrow from a moneylender. Under no circumstances is a bigger rate of interest required. Cléante is to pay twenty-five percent curiosity and to get involved of the bank loan in goods which he or she must sell. Without having choice but for agree, this individual meets the moneylender. He could be horrified to look for that the moneylender is his own dad. Harpagon is equally irritated that his son needs to be such a spendthrift that he must take out a loan at this sort of high rates. The two component without concluding the loan, Cléante to try to organise a loan elsewhere and Harpagon to try to protect a dowry for Mariane.

Harpagon arranges a party in honor of Mariane, whom he have not as yet attained. He rpondant the servants to be very sparing together with the food and drink, as it is an injustice to one’s guests to stuff them full. Although Mariane detects Harpagon repulsive, she is sure by her poor mother’s wish that she require a rich spouse. When Mariane learns that Harpagon is the father of her much loved Cléante, your woman detests him more than ever. Cléante gets a tiny measure of payback on his father by taking a huge diamond ring from his father’s finger and presenting this to Mariane after showing her that Harpagon would like her to have it. The miser can be helpless; he cannot have it back unless of course he confesses his stinginess to the lady he would like to get married to.

After Harpagon tricks Cléante into admitting his love for Mariane, the old guy vows nowadays to have her for himself. Cléante curses his father and assures that the aged miser will not have the lady, and Harpagon disinherits his son. Then the servant rushes in with good news that Harpagon has been swindled of his buried money. All else is forgotten by miser as he cries out for help. This individual suspects everyone of thieving the money, possibly himself. He will have the whole household hanged, and if the bucks is certainly not found he will hang himself.

A envious servant tells Harpagon that Valère required the money. Harpagon orders the.

(The whole section can be 1, 038 words. )


The dearth info with regard to Molière’s life, particularly, during the period up to his return to Paris, france in 1658, has given rise to countless hypotheses and fabulations. The major obstacle lies in the absence of manuscripts and papers in Molière’s own palm, which pushes biographers to rely on archival sources and writings regarding Molière simply by others. The rigorous scholarship grant in the 1960s and 1970s simply by Madeleine Jurgens and At the Maxfield-Miller, Georges Mongrédien, Sylvie Chevalley, and Suzanne Dulait, has subjected the emotional, anecdotal approaches of many biographers. The later Roger Duchêne, renowned intended for his biographical studies in Ninon para Lenclos, Madame de Lafayette, La Fontaine, and Madame de Sévigné, brought jointly the two distinctively French approaches of thebiographie historiqueand thebiographie interprétative, avoiding the pitfalls of precursors, by unique carefully among fact and myth, and recontextualizing the plays inside the light of literary, social, political, and scientific improvements. 17 Virginia Scott’s more speculative, quasi-novelesque biography, geared towards a broad readership, is a personal interpretation of Molière’s life, seen through the optic in the cultural great Paris, the folks he came across, and throughout the plays, which usually she goodies as indicators of his ‘own values and ideas’. 18 C. E. J. Caldicott’s careful study of Molière’s professional life, divided between his aristocratic, and later royal, protectors, and his bourgeois printers, is an important contribution within a neglected region, calling into question categorization of the dramatist within the interpersonal hierarchy. 19 Alain Niderst’s engaging examine seeks to synthesize and harmonise contradictory data, nevertheless recognizes the high risk of his technique: ‘nous nenni saurions asegurar tout ce que nous disions para Molière ainsi que […] nous-mmes sommes conscients des audaces que nous nous sommes permises’. 20 The ‘lecture psychologique’ by simply Catherine Axelrad brings a novelist’s point of view to familiar material. twenty one An ingenious reconstruction by François Rey and Jean Lacouture of Molière’s battle to getTartuffewill take the form of any five-act dialogue between the two biographers, through which major hypotheses are raised. 22 Molière’s comedy is viewed paradoxically to emerge from a quasi-tragic, real-life drama. The simple fact that Molière never delivered to the subject matter after 1669 is interpreted as a great ultimate victory for the enemies ofTartuffe.

However , one of the most controversial conjunction with Molière biography has certainly been Dominique Labbé’s resurrection of the declare that Molière’s most celebrated functions were authored by Corneille. twenty three Previously, the French poet Pierre Louys in 1919 twenty four and several beginner literary detectives had produced similar allegations drawn from prospect lists of linguistic and biographical concurrences. The debate was relaunched in 1958 by simply Henri Poulaille, 25 and developed by Hippolyte Wouters and Christine para Ville de Goyet in 1990. 26 Whereas these kinds of previous assertions were dismissed as romancing, the seemingly scientific procedure introduced by statistician Labbé, based on ‘intertextual distance’, created a endured critical response from teachers and press. 27 Labbé’s self-confessed ignorance of literary criticism and of seventeenth-century People from france literature with all its wealthy intertextuality and parody, tricked the constraint of his method. Nevertheless , Labbé’s proponents have elevated the ‘Affaire Corneille’ in a twenty-first-century challenge forTartuffe, with senior Moliéristes pilloried while ‘la cabale des dévots de Molière’! 28

Community Testimonials

the miser a spanish comedy simply by Molière. Harpagon the leading part, who usually spends most of his time guarding his funds and searching for ways to decrease or avoid paying home expenses. At the end of the enjoy, he is more concerned with his money than he could be with the well being of his children.Cléante Son of Harpagon. He loves Marianne, the young woman he preserved from too much water and to his bad luck his father desires to marry, Élise Little girl of Harpagon and dearest of Valère. Against her wishes, Harpagon hop the miser a French comedy by Molière. Harpagon the protagonist, who have spends most of his time guarding his money and searching for methods to reduce or perhaps avoid having to pay household expenses. At the end from the play, he can more concerned along with his money than he is while using welfare of his kids.Cléante Son of Harpagon. He loves Marianne, the young woman this individual saved coming from drowning and also to his misfortune his father wishes to marry, Élise Daughter of Harpagon and beloved of Valère. Against her would like, Harpagon wants to15325 marry her to a wealthy man whom he choose.

Harpagon is unable to see in himself the shortcomings for which he blames others. Harpagon criticizes Jacques intended for always thinking of money. Harpagon, of course , is a one who is definitely obsessed with funds.

HARPAGON. Show me, can you give us a good supper?JACQUES. Yes, in case you give me plenty of money.HARPAGON. The deuce! Usually money! I do believe they have nothing else to sayexcept funds, money, cash! Always that same word in their mouthmoney! That they always talk about money! It’s their cushion companion, funds!

Based on Plautus, this is one of five Moliere not series I examine in my rudimentary French (but good Latin) in grad school following one defeat or another. My personal paper for a post-doc at Harvard with Marge Garber compared Shakespeare wonderful Plautine options. I’ve always considered the Bard best as being a comedic writer, though a single must acknowledge Moliere his equal there. L’Avare is pretty late in Moliere’s career, unlike Shakespeare’s early uses of Plautus (here, Aulularia), and scandalously, in prose. A Fight it out d Depending on Plautus, this is certainly one of five Moliere not series I examine in my rudimentary French (but good Latin) in grad school following one defeat or another. My personal paper by a post-doc at Harvard with Marge Garber as opposed Shakespeare fantastic Plautine options. I’ve constantly considered the Bayart best as a comedic writer, though one must agree Moliere his equal presently there. L’Avare is rather late in Moliere’s career, unlike Shakespeare’s early uses of Plautus (here, Aulularia), and scandalously, in the entire. A Fight it out disapproved, although Boileau laughed, said to be the only one. Hence, first reviews dissed. In Aulularia, Lyconides foi to a crime, istuc facinus quod tuom sollicitat animum, id spirit feci ain fateor(IV. back button. 734, Clarendon), exactly as in L’Avare, Versus. iii.

Regarding my defeats increasing my own appreciation: My major beat was a high-status, mentally faltering prof who also did NOT examine grad college student papers. Just because a fellow scholar flattered him, quoted his Norton intro’s back to him at his Ph. M. orals, the prof received him a fairly good job -at Princeton. That fellow published embarassingly inadequately, so he made a better job. as college or university and university or college president. In general, Moliere’s takes on cheered myself so much My spouse and i didn’t attention what happened in the grad classes. I left-for years. Acquired my initially job wherever 1400 persons had evaluated for 3 positions: we were on national news, even more applicants to teach than to visit college (1100? ), Berkshire Community College or university, Pittsfield, MUM in 1971. Was I much better than the other 800 English language apllicants? I was hired because of the way We pronounced tromBONE. The Chairman experienced always heard, TROMbone, inches but my personal Neapolitan music teacher (who played an Amati largemouth bass, and tuba) A. Bevivino, called it tromBONE(AH). inch. more

What make use of will money be to us whether it comes only when we are as well old to relish it?

This is my own second come across with Molière’s brilliant operate, and I, much like before, discovered it to get very amusing.

Molière attention toirony, exaggeration, humour, and also to darker mattershappen to be what condition his not series and get them to truly great.

I highly recommendanyone, who is only beginning to browse plays and has have difficulty understanding and enjoying their very own structure, to study this one.

I actually laughed aloud at tiWhat employ will funds be to us if it comes only if we are also old to enjoy it? inches

This is my second face with Molière’s brilliant operate, and I, similarly to before, located it to become very entertaining.

Molière attention toparadox, exaggeration, connaissance, and also to deeper mattersare what form his comedies and make them truly superb.

I highly recommendanyone, who is only beginning to go through plays and has have difficulty understanding and enjoying all their structure, to read this one.

I laughed out loud at times, due to witty dialogue and the hilarity of a few particular occasions. The laughter was great, and this is usually coming from a person, who rarely ever laughs although reading.

However , it also brought to mind a lot more serious styles, the most obvious a single being miserliness, in other words,greedand the effects of it.

While, at times just how it was shown was totally hilarious – there were moments when it actually did producea sense of disgust and weariness.

An impressive insight into the lives of families during the time it was crafted, andthe paranoia, seclusion and chaossuch greed can cause.. more

This People from france classic was my initially experience of Molière and made me a lifelong supporter. Unfortunately, the translation from this Kindle model (my backup is by Project Gutenberg) by Charles Heron Wall structure isn’t as good as the one I remember from years back (Richard Wilbur’s? ). Whilst easy to read, I miss the rhyming couplets and the word play isn’t as gleaming as I anticipate from Molière.

Even with these kinds of flaws, We still enjoyed reading this. The ending reminded me of anything from a Shakespeare humor (The C This France classic was my initial experience of Molière and made us a lifelong enthusiast. Unfortunately, the translation through this Kindle edition (my duplicate is via Project Gutenberg) by Charles Heron Wall membrane isn’t as effective as the one I remember from years back (Richard Wilbur’s? ). While easy to read, We miss the rhyming couplets and the word play basically as gleaming as I anticipate from Molière.

Even with these flaws, I actually still had fun reading this. The ending reminded me of something from a Shakespeare funny (The Funny of Errors perhaps) yet I love the fact that Harpagon stays miserly to the end.. more

I can’t quite keep in mind the last period I had this much fun browsing a enjoy. Oh, misunderstandings! How humorous they can be if you are not one involved in all of them. Must concede I wasn’t quite wanting that closing.

A amazingly light go through. Must definitely write a thanks note to my amazing friend who have yet again advised a book I found myself experiencing.

There is only one thing My spouse and i liked (maybe even cherished? ) aboutThe Miserand that’s the Harpagon monologue. Not surprising, because Harpagon is additionally the only interesting character. All others is. a filler materials at best. Bad, not bad, certainly not in the grey area. They are just not ineresting, boring, lifeless. And that’s problems when you are told the play is personality driven.

The convenient stopping could have been done well; I enjoy a play with the same plot twist. In this case is actually not co There is only 1 thing I liked (maybe even loved? ) regardingThe Miserand that’s the Harpagon monologue. Not surprising, because Harpagon is additionally the only interesting character. All others is. a filler materials at best. Not good, not bad, not in the greyish area. They are really just not ineresting, boring, uninteresting. And that’s a problem when you are told the enjoy is character driven.

The convenient closing could have been carried out well; I really like a play with the same plot twist. In this case it’s not comedy, it’s simply convenient.

Done it only because it was the only book I had in the subway and it’s simply 80 pages long.. more

The Miser by Moliere

Another type of this be aware and thoughts on other literature are available at:

This is at least the third period that I talk with Harpagon.Memorable is definitely the film with Louis sobre Funes.

The last version is definitely adapted for the BASSE CONSOMMATION.I actually sympathize with Harpagon and I offer a different approach this time.

– Yes, this man is definitely despicable from some points of view- This individual fights together with his children above arranged partnerships, even rivalling with his son over the bet The Miser by Moliere

Another type of this be aware and thoughts on other catalogs are available at:

This can be at least the third time that I talk with Harpagon.Memorable is a film with Louis de Funes.

The last version is adapted to get the BBC.I actually sympathize with Harpagon and I suggest a different way this time.

– Yes, the old man is usually despicable by some parts of view- He fights along with his children more than arranged partnerships, even contending with his child over the betrothal of Mariane

Having founded a couple of describes, I are thinking that in addition to the arranged, unreasonable marriages you will find problems with the marital associations born out of love.After a 2 yrs period, your latter encounter a honeymoon effect where a hedonic adaptation intervenes.

The spouse can be as appealing and attractive as Brad Pitt or Angelina Jolie and still one wants a big change.

– I would refer to the Lasagna principle as established and the result of the Harvard Professor Igual Ben Shahar

Of course , brilliant people and particularly those with a high EQ, which has been demonstrated to matter twice as much as IQ, would know how to avoid dullness and routine and half of marriages or maybe more resist in to old age.

Although I would mention that a few that comes from a similar group contains a better chance to maintain the relationship than those who have are very different- in spite of that claim that opposites attract- because after couple of years, if one is educated and preoccupied with the stories of John Cheever, while the other wants to talk about soccer, the gap find yourself in turning out to be an underworld.

Ergo, mother and father are sometimes directly to insist on the viability of your marriage it does not bridge a niche as vast as that between a University teacher and a plumber.Of course , Harpagon is considering a dowry for his son, that is to get married to a wealthy widow plus the opposite to get his child, who is destined – if Harpagon could have the final say- to get married to an old person, who would not really ask for anything at all from the dad.

The parsimony of the protagonist is extreme and cause for ridicule and laughter, his community stigmatizing him.When he has guests, he tells his servant to:

– Free the wine, serve if they will ask…and if they ask, wait, pretend not to hear…again and again- If they insist, add water…what about this kitchen apron, save that- How can I achieve that? It has a enormous stain…and there is hole at my back, inside the trousers…the persons will see my…- Stay with the back at the wall

Jacques is much like one of those special deals that miserly fellows just like: pay for just one single and get…three in this caseFor he is the cook, the servant plus the coachman and he emphasis while requesting his master- are you talking to the prepare now?

It can be nearly amusing at times, when Jacques for instance is appalled by the insincerity of Contare, who talks nicely regarding Harpagon:

– I know he could be false expert- How?- He admits that you are excellent, kind and a nice gentleman- Well- We all know that is not true…

Words to that particular effectThen Jacques talks about the horses, that contain nothing to take in in the house of The Miser, but they will break with this kind of regime.

– After the race horses, I like you most expert and I don’t know so why

Harpagon is correct with his leitmotif:

– We consume to live rather than live to eat

Studies made in Okinawa have demonstrated that the extraordinary longevity of the people there may be due mostly to their eating routine:

– They eat just about 80% of what they would like, they by no means get a full stomach . more

Favorite Rates. Each one particular thinks they are immune to flattery, but no, it works without fail (p5)A plague if perhaps misers and avarice (p11)It is just a sad working day when your own children change traitor and turn enemies. The verb to give makes him and so physically unwell that he won’t ever before say, Give your dad my relation; it’s give him my own regards.

Moliere’s humor is captured in The Miser. The protagonist is consumed with greed or satiable desire for riches. Although the playwright is when compared to Shakespeare, I find Favorite Quotes. Every one feels they are resistant to flattery, but no, it works more often than not (p5)A problem if misers and greed (p11)It is a unfortunate day whenever your own children turn traitor and become opponents. The action-word to provide makes him so physically sick that he won’t ever state, Give the uncle my own regards; it’s lend him my ok bye.

Moliere’s wit is definitely captured in The Miser. The protagonist is usually consumed with avarice or perhaps satiable desire to have wealth. Although the playwright is usually compared to William shakespeare, I find the plan to be too simple. According to scriptures the vice of guy are listed as: lust, anger, add-on, pride, ego and avarice. The one hour read take advantage of one great individual vice. . even more

Another traditional I browse and I loved it. If only I could observe it in theater eventually. In Rome. Oh, just how I’d wish to live in Paris for at least 12 months. The situation with this comedy is rather hysterical: a father that has a lot of money but saves this too much, a son who have loves a woman who loves him back, the comical rivalry among those two, a man that is sucking to the father therefore he can marry his girl and at the conclusion, a sneaky matchmaker.

Absolutely nothing else I am able to say relating to this.

Well, screw Another classic I browse and I adored it. I wish I could view it in theater 1 day. In Paris, france. Oh, just how I’d like to live in Paris, france for at least 12 months. The situation through this comedy is quite hysterical: a father who may have a lot of money nevertheless saves it too much, a son who also loves a female who loves him again, the comical rivalry between those two, a man who is sucking to the father thus he can get married to his girl and at the conclusion, a crooked; dishonest matchmaker.

Irritating else I can say regarding this.

Well, screw New Year’s resolutions.. even more

You need to not live to eat, but eat to have.

(It seems better in French. Really funnier. )

This review has been h >I am crazy about this book! Moliere’s characters have the best personalities (which is usually logical, because he was often idealising a certain character feature e. g. someone, who’s penny-pinching). The primary character in this book is definitely Harpagon – an old widower, caring even more about money than regarding his children and everything else really. His son Kleant – stubborn, has a large amount of arguments with father, because of how diverse they are – is in appreciate with Marianne and his girl Elise – less uncooperative than they would I i am in love with this book! Moliere’s personas have the finest personalities (which is logical, because he was always idealising a certain personality feature at the. g. someone, who’s penny-pinching). The main figure in this publication is Harpagon – a vintage widower, qualified more regarding money than about his children and anything else genuinely. His child Kleant – stubborn, has a lot of disputes with father, because of how different they are – is at love with Marianne great daughter Elise – much less stubborn than her brother, but the girl defends her love whatever – is love with Valere. Harpagon wants Kleant to get married to a abundant widow and Elise will need to marry Mister. Anselm, whom doesn’t need any dowry. He programs to marry Marianne, due to her dowry. The marriages are staying planned, yet suddenly Harpagon cannot get his moneybox and starts off losing his mind. I absolutely admire the way in which Moliere published Harpagon’s fear of losing money and just how much it affects him – this individual starts heading slightly crazy, a slave to his greediness. His servant, who have took the moneybox, guaranteed to give it back, if he lets his kids marry, whoever they love. Also because he is crazy about his money, he does so.

I would recommend this guide to any person, who loves Shakespeare’s comedies or series. If you are not really fan of monologues or maybe a lot of comprehensive speech, than it might be a lttle bit boring for you personally sometimes.. even more


The major innovation in bibliography has been around the fermage of electronic resources. The internet bibliography located at Pézenas, a site conceptualized and developed by a leading People from france Molière scholar, Gabriel Conesa, while not pretending to be exhaustive, can be an invaluable research tool. 10 The Agorra Encyclopedia, 14 though significantly less comprehensive, suits the Pézenas site which usually it justifiably calls ‘richissime’. Selective centered bibliographical data and text messages are within CESAR, a web based database which, gathering information on the performs, people, and gratification spaces in French movie theater between 1600 and 1850, is particularly helpful in contextualizing Molière’s plays. 12 Two sites dedicated to The french language theatre have got provided a good forum intended for discussion of current issues. 13

These types of electronic sites, which dietary supplement the annual lists provided, for example , by the MLA bibliography and the ISI Web expertise, have caused emendation and updates, which were not franco with the printed volumes. The major concern may be the need for repair to ensure that these sites are endlessly contemporary. Three volumes in hard copy include, however , contributed to Molière bibliography: the overdue Jürgen Grimm’s philological and socio-historical survey, 14 the 1823 titles listed at the end of the second volume of Tanker Dandrey’s magisterial study of Molière and medicine, 12-15 andThe Molière Encyclopedia, edited by Wayne Gaines, which in turn, though focused primarily by students, is a ready supply of information pertaining to specialists. sixteen


Molière students are eagerly awaiting Gallimard’s new Pléiade edition in theuvres complètes, modified by Forestier, Caldicott, Claude Bourqui, and Anne Piéjus, which will replace Couton’s model as the typical reference. 29 While other recent total works and separate editions have concentrated on vast readership, 31 three educational editions have got shed interesting light about genetic issues. Julia Prest’s analysis of the three editions of the unjustifiably neglectedVotre Mariage forcé(1664, 1660, 1672) 31 shows adjustments made by Molière to take accounts of the exigencies of different followers and resources. Robert McBride’s reconstruction from the 1667 version ofTartuffedeveloped his edition from theLettre au sein de comédie de L’Imposteur, which presented a synthesis of the present state of knowledge on the 1667 text and convincing quarrels for ascribing authorship to La Mothe Le Vayer. 32 McBride completed this kind of experimental trilogy in text archaeology in his sifting of all of the hypotheses about the 1664 version. 33 While some critics remain sceptical with the possibility of filling these mystical lacunae, non-e can doubt McBride’s careful piecing together of data which make these kinds of studies an essential contribution. Mary DeJean details the textual problem increased byDem Juan, 34 which usually, not released during Molière’s lifetime, was subjected to censorship, which has questioned previous publishers who have tended to follow, even if with variations, the initially French edition of 1682. Her ownership of the Amsterdam text of 1683, evaluation of the performance of early on editions, and rich appendices, have shown the value of content issues, which has been illustrated in other places by arguments on modernization of transliteration and punctuation. 35

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