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Prevalence and risk factors of gastro-esophageal reflux disease among undergraduate ...

Radiation-induced esophagitis

High medication dosage external light radiotherapy used for treatment of malignant tumors concerning lung, esophagus, or mediastinum can cause injury to the esophagus. A rays dose of 45-60 Gy can cause severe esophagitis with irreversible harm. Smaller doasage amounts of 20-45 Gy can cause milder type of self-limiting esophagitis without everlasting sequelae. Serious radiation esophagitis usually occurs 2-4 weeks after the completion of radiotherapy which is self-limiting. In double-contrast research, esophageal mucosa has granular appearance with ulceration and reduced luminal distensibility. Chronic esophagitis manifests at 4-8 months following completion of radiotherapy and radiosurgery in form of radiation strictures. On barium swallow, the radiation strictures appear as long sections of concentric and clean narrowing .

Stricture second to the radiation: Case of squamous cell carcinoma of mid esophagus, postradiotherapy position. Barium take done 9 months following the completion of radiotherapy and radiosurgery revealed very long segment of concentric smooth narrowing including distal esophagus

Surgical alternatives

If lifestyle changes do not substantially improve the indications of GERD, or medications might not have the desired impact, a gastroenterologist may recommend surgery.

Surgery include:

  • Fundoplication:The surgeon sews the top in the stomach surrounding the esophagus. This kind of adds pressure to the lower end of the esophagus and is generally successful for reducing reflux.
  • Endoscopic techniques:This really is a range of procedures contain endoscopic regular sewing, which uses stitches to tighten the sphincter muscle mass, and radiofrequency, which uses heat to generate small burns up that support tighten the sphincter muscles.


Clinical analysis centers in regards to history that tackles psychological factors and a thorough examination of the throat, larynx, and pharynx. Sensations localized over a cricoid come up in areas visible by simply flexible laryngoscopy. Direct (rigid) laryngoscopy provides a role in investigation of some sufferers, especially those with associated symptoms that might advise malignancies. Ba (symbol) radiographs include a limited part for detecting pharyngeal malocclusions but might help discover a esophageal electric motor disorder or perhaps reflux esophagitis. Patients with these second option findings will likely have indications of reflux disease or dysphagia along with globus.

Study participants

All of us conducted a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey. The participants had been undergraduate Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) students of Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), a central government-run tertiary care start located in Puducherry, southern India. In India, the MBBS program involves 4a lot of studies and then compulsory internships for one year. The study was executed during August2015. The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Institute Ethics Committee (Human studies) at JIPMER (Ref. No . JIP/IEC/2015/19/698).

Smoking and obesity particularly belly fat is also modifiable risk factors

Fred Hutch researchers recording published a paper inPLOS Onethat looked at a variety of life-style factors by smoking and obesity to alcohol use to see whether they were associated with progression to esophageal cancer among several more than 500 patients with Barrett’s.

They identified that hefty smokers with Barrett’s were more than twice as likely to develop esophageal cancer as nonsmokers with Barrett’s. The components underlying this relationship will be unclear. As well as the carcinogenic pieces of cigarette smoke as well as potential effects on infection and cell proliferation, tobacco smoke also is considered to relax the esophageal sphincter, which could result in acid reflux, or perhaps chronic heartburn symptoms.

However , alcohol consumption would not appear to be a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma among people with Barrett’s. (Alcohol use is, however , connected with a 10-fold increase can be risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, the other significant type of esophageal cancer. )

The researchers also found that abs obesity, or belly fat, was more strongly associated with progression from Barrett’s to cancers as compared to a top body-mass index. While this finding needs to be confirmed, if you have indeed a connection between belly fat and development to malignancy, it may be as a result of inflammatory associated with fatty tissue and an increase in chronic acid reflux as a result of intra-abdominal pressure exerted by simply extra stomach fat.


Careful exclusion of strength lesions is essential before assigning a functional analysis. Barium radiography using radio-opaque bolus problem (e. g., barium pill or marshmallow) and fluoroscopy can help determine the anatomic level and nature of obstructing lesions. Endoscopy can importantly determine tumors, mucosal rings, strictures, and proof of pathologic reflux. Negative evaluations should be and then manometry. Dysphagia is the trademark symptom of achalasia, a potential prognosis even when various other studies happen to be unrevealing. Dysphagia associated with non-specific motility abnormalities (especially spastic disorders) might be more receptive than chest pain to concours that impact motility, making manometry of greater energy in the administration algorithms. 21 years old


We found that 30% of undergraduate registrants of a medical school in southern India had for least one episode of heartburn or perhaps regurgitation in a week, and 5% of students competent for a diagnosis of GERD described by a indicator score 4. In a previous research on GERD symptoms in undergraduate students from one other medical university in the southern part of India, the authors found a similar prevalence of weekly symptoms (24%) . However , a study from Karachi, Pakistan reported a lower prevalence of weekly symptoms of about 7% among medical pupils . No info on intensity of symptoms was reported in these two studies, hindering estimation in the true prevalence of GERD.

Previous research from India using the same questionnaire in several study foule have reported a higher prevalence of GERD. A study about employees of your government clinic in northern India identified a prevalence of 16. 2% . An additional study done in Ladakh, which is a thin air area, reported a frequency of 18. 7% . There might be two likely reasons for the reduced prevalence of GERD in our study. Initial, the mean age of participants in the previous studies from India was bigger by about two decades. Raising prevalence of GERD symptoms with era has been seen in some research, though not in others [8, 21]. Second, previous studies had included a heterogeneous adult human population, whereas we all studied a far more homogeneous group. GERD is a group of stomach disorders in which the perception of symptoms as well as its severity has been shown to be revised by stress and stress-related personality characteristics. Moreover, studies reveal that medical students often encounter several limitations in in search of help for physical and mental health problems [22, 23]. A newly released study from your institution demonstrated that a significant proportion of undergraduate students had anxiety about side-effects of treatment and negative academic impact if they desired medical attention, and therefore were hesitant to do so . Also, more than 73% of them resorted to self-medication for their physical illnesses. Also, in another research from the southern part of India, about 48% of undergraduate medical students took self-medications to get GERD symptoms especially prior to their exams . It is to end up being noted that about 30% of learners were taking some form of antacids, although we did not accumulate information on if this was otc use.

We all found the prevalence of GERD symptoms was even more in students with a higher BMI. A dose dependent increase in GERD symptoms with increasing BMI was observed in the HUNT study, a prospective population-based cohort examine conducted in Nord-TrCounty, Norway . A newly released meta-analysis upon lifestyle concours effective in reducing GERD symptoms concluded that weight loss and tobacco escale were the 2 effective measures . This is especially relevant for students population seeing that disordered diet plan and deficiency of adequate physical activity could potentially result in weight gain. We observed that 35% of students did not engage in any form of physical exercise.

We identified that repeated consumption of carbonated beverages was a risk factor pertaining to GERD. A few physiological studies indicate that particular foods and beverages can relax the lower esophageal muscle and create a drop in esophageal ph level [25, 26]. Yet , a systematic review on the associated with carbonated beverages on GERD found no direct evidence that these beverages promote or perhaps exacerbate GERD . These refreshments are known to have additional deleterious wellness effects just like weight gain, and therefore it is prudent to decrease their recurrent consumption [28, 29]. Frequent consumption of tea or espresso was as well associated with GERD. Drinking two cups of tea every day was a risk factor to get GERD in Syrian undergraduate and graduate students . In the same way, a study on men via Taiwan found that ingesting tea 4 days a week was associated with asymptomatic erosive esophagitis . Students with GERD symptoms could be advised to observe in the event tea or perhaps coffee exacerbate their symptoms so that their particular intake may be limited.

The current study has the merit that individuals used a standardized, validated questionnaire pertaining to the associated with GERD. This kind of ensures that moderate, infrequent symptoms which stand for physiological gastro-esophageal reflux are certainly not misclassified as disease. Even more, we asked the students to comment on current episodes of GERD symptoms and lifestyle, thereby reducing recall opinion.

Hiatus laxitud

Hiatus laxitud can be moving type, going type (or paraesophageal), or mixed type. On ba (symbol) swallow, moving hiatus laxitud is diagnosed when mucosal ring or perhaps B diamond ring is

a couple of cm over a hiatus with presence of gastric retracts above the zwischenzeit . Alternatively, in paraesophageal hernia, GENERAL ELECTRIC junction is usually normal properly with herniation of auswahl of tummy into the torso. In merged hernia, GENERAL ELECTRIC junction can be displaced in excess with herniation of auswahl of abdomen .

(A) Sliding zwischenzeit hernia: Way up migration of GE verse with herniation of tummy into thoracic cavity. (B) Mixed hernia: Upright ba (symbol) swallow picture showing paraesophageal herniation of fundus and body of stomach (arrow). Also note higher placement of GENERAL ELECTRIC junction


Anyone who is encountering frequent acid reflux symptoms ought to talk to their doctor, who also may pertain them to a professional in stomach medicine known as a gastroenterologist for more investigation.

There are several possible assessments to detect GERD, including:

  • Esophageal pH and impedance monitoring: This steps the amount of acid solution in the esophagus while the body is in different says, such as while eating or perhaps sleeping.
  • Uppr gastrointestinal (GI) endoscope: This is a tube having a camera attached, which is used to inspect the esophagus. A small test of cells may also be taken at the same time within a biopsy.
  • Upper GI series: This really is a type of Xray that shows up certain physical abnormalities that might cause GERD.
  • Esophageal manometry: This measures muscle contractions inside the esophagus during swallowing. It can measure the strength of the sphincter.
  • Bravo wi-fi esophageal pH monitoring: In this evaluation, a small short-term capsule is attached to the esophagus. This kind of measures the acidity consistently for around forty eight hours.


Globus is actually a sensation of any lump, something stuck, or tightness inside the throat. Classically, a group, it may be a hair- or crumb-like (foreign body) discomfort, a constriction or a choking. The symptom is considered functional when simply no organic description is detected. Many physical diseases happen to be blamed pertaining to the indicator, including sinus infection, tonsillitis, cervical spondylitis, and other otolaryngological details, but a real association of the symptom with these disorders is not well established.

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