A ccountability may be both an end in itself – representing democratic values – and a way towards the advancement more efficient and effective organisations. Politicians and public servants are given gigantic power throughout the laws and regulations they will implement, assets they control and the organisations they manage. Accountability is a key way to ensure that this power is used appropriately and accordance together with the public interest. Accountability requires clarity regarding who is dependable to whom so that and that city servants, organisations and politicians are held accountable for their particular decisions and satisfaction.
Accountability could be strengthened through formal reporting requirements and external overview (such since an independent Taxation Office, Ombudsmen, etc . ). Democratic liability, as represented by answerability of ministers to legislative house and the legislative house to voters, can be seen as objective by itself, but it also strengthens accountability on the whole. Many OECD countries are strengthening answerability through more focus on accountability for functionality as opposed to restricting accountability to regularity of choices.
(6) Capacity & Tone of voice
All individuals, men and women, must have a tone in the making decisions process in good governance compliant Point out. This may be direct or through legitimate intermediate institutions. Such broad engagement is made possible by the freedom of association and expression. With the principles listed thus far, the principle of legitimacy and voice has got the strongest claim to universal identification based on over the half century of United Nations accomplishments in the field of human privileges. One more facet of great governance is the intention to do something on consensus and not around the will of some, whether good or poor. This mediates the different interests to get to a broad consensus on precisely what is in the best interest of the entire world. A long term perspective giving credited regard for the holistic impact on the contemporary society must be performed before the regulating authority envisages on a way and concentrate on sustainable human development. This could include better understanding the traditional, cultural and social situations of the given society.
The earth Bank released the concept in its 1992 report entitled Governance and Development. According to the document, good governance is a necessary complement to sound economical policies and is central to and keeping an environment which will fosters strong and equitable development. For the World Bank, good governance consists of this components: potential and productivity in public sector management, answerability, legal platform for creation, and details and transparency.
Inappropriate and non-observance of the rule of regulation
In the case and real sense the usage of rule of law in Bangladesh employs a course of selective and discretionary software. 18 May be that regulations are there nevertheless there are used only in support of privilege persons or course. As a result justices suffer and denied towards the common people. Which environment have an effect on out correct the basic rights of the poor and the cultural place elides although that is an important aspect of good governance.
Because concepts such as civil society, decentralisation, peaceful turmoil management and accountability are often used once defining the concept of good governance, the definition great governance stimulates many > Unsurprisingly, emphasis on good governance can be equated with promoting democratic government. However , a 2011 literature review analyzing the web link between democracy and creation by Alina Rocha Menocal of the International Development Company stresses the inconclusiveness of ev
In international affairs (IR)
In intercontinental affairs, examination of good governance can look any kind of time of the subsequent relationships:
- between governments and markets
- between government authorities and citizens
- among governments and the private or voluntary sector
- among elected representatives and equiped officials
- between government and Municipal Society Organisations (CSOs)
The varying types of comparisons comprising the analysis of governance in scholastic and practical discussion can cause the meaning of good governance to vary greatly from practitioner to practitioner.
Transparency and Open Information Systems
T ransparency is an important aspect of good governance, and transparent decision making is critical for the private sector to make sound decisions and investments. Accountability and the rule of law require openness and good information so higher levels of administration, external reviewers and the general public can verify performance and compliance to law.
Governments have access to a vast amount of important information. Dissemination of this information through transparency and open information systems can provide specific information that firms and individuals need to have to be able to make good decisions. Capital markets depend for example on information openness.
In scientific exploration
Before there can be scientific experimentation, organizations must be compliant with good governance, meaning that testing must be moral and practical. Many research organizations such as SPICE (Stratospheric Particle Injection for Climate Engineering), a geoengineering research project that was formed in the U.K., was required to go through stages of evaluation before testing could be conducted if they were to be funded by stakeholders. In 2011 SPICE made plans to experiment with solar radiation. The method for this experiment included injecting stratospheric sulfur aerosols into the Earth’s atmosphere.
The criteria or stage-gate that they must pass before performing their experiment included the following;
Transparency and accountability
Better access to safe, effective, good-quality medicines requires stronger governance of the pharmaceutical system and transparency and accountability have consistently been identified as key elements of governance. 14 Transparency and accountability can reduce vulnerability to corruption and unethical practices and improve public trust in government institutions. 15 , 16 In recent years, new standards for transparency in the pharmaceutical system have emerged. A major advance was the call for the public disclosure of clinical trial results. 17 Another was the demand for transparency on medicine production costs to provide a basis for fair pricing. 18 In addition, new mechanisms for ensuring transparency about industry’s payments to physicians have been established; for example, recent legislation in Ontario, Canada, which was modelled on the United States’ Physician Payments Sunshine Act. 19
Frameworks for conceptualizing or assessing governance in the health and pharmaceutical sectors often include transparency and accountability and have been developed following extensive consultations with multiple stakeholders. 20 28 Yet, despite growing interest, little has been published on practical approaches to improving transparency and accountability in the pharmaceutical system or on evidence of their effects on health system outcomes. In particular, it is unclear what information should be made transparent and how that information should be used. Another obstacle is that transparency and accountability are often defined as distinct concepts. We see them as actually being closely related and believe that an understanding of how transparency can increase accountability is crucial for identifying the types of information that should be made publicly available.
Here we propose an approach to identifying key information across the pharmaceutical system that can help policy-makers and other stakeholders strengthen accountability and we illustrate its application. In developing this approach, we have drawn on the experience of two international programmes that focused on transparency, accountability and anticorruption practices in the pharmaceutical system.
Bribery has a clear inverse relationship with MDG achievement. In countries where more people paid more bribes to obtain basic services, more women died during childbirth, fewer children lived beyond five years of age, more people went without clean drinking water or toilets, and fewer girls finished secondary school.
Bribery also wipes out the benefits of economic growth. For example, any gains made in improving access to safe drinking water when family incomes rise are offset by the negative effect of bribery.50% of school children do not complete primary school in countries where bribery is common.
2.1 Good Governance: Recent Initiatives
The pre dominant theme in contemporary debate over administrative reforms in India has been the target of achieving objectives under a regime of good governance. This implies a broader outlook towards management of such matters without exclusively restricting it to public administration. It is suggested that this
The contemporary efforts towards administrative reforms are not directed against an autonomous State, but instead a bureaucracy that is coming to grips with the changing role of the State. The bureaucracy is itself under an attack; on account of its inefficiency and also because of its association with a political system which has failed to perform, a system which deprived the citizens of their legitimate rights in decision making for far too long. Another striking feature of these reforms is their tendency to be more ideologically oriented than before.
This context must therefore be kept in mind while debating over the reform initiatives in recent times. The change in the context is primarily seen as an induced effect of the demand generated by the people’s struggle to make the government accountable. It is a change spearheaded by the efforts of the people. It is not a deliberate attempt by a benevolent government to come clean. Kuldeep Mathur makes an interesting observation that the government while reacting to this demand raised by the people has in fact met with resistance from within its own members.
The Conference of Chief Secretaries on effective and responsive administration in November 1996 gave birth to certain recommendations which were later converted into an Action Plan by the Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances, which also included brainstorming by the Prime Minister, Cabinet Secretary, Chief Ministers and the Chief Secretaries. The Action Plan intends to introduce accountable administration which is effective and speedy in redressing public grievances, empowerment of local bodies, decentralized delivery system, review of laws, transparency and the right to information, code of ethics for civil servants, anti-corruption policies, etc. The central
The Central Government had setup the Working Group on Right to Information and Promotion of Open and Transparent Government in 1997, which observed
means choice and a sound and informed choice is possible only on the basis of knowledge.
It went on to argue that transparency and openness in the functioning of the government shall have a cleansing effect on the operations of public agencies and approvingly quoted the saying that sunlight is the best disinfectant.
In May 1997, at the Conference of Chief Ministers, transparency in the government was discussed and a statement issues which prov
While the Right to Information Act was introduced in 2005, continuous efforts are underway to introduce more accountability and transparency in the system. While most of the principles of good governance are found in the Indian legal framework in the form of constitutionally guaranteed safeguards, the governance needs to involve the civil society more actively in the decision making and establish the norms of redressal. The lack of transparency, prevalence of corruption, inefficient working and lack of responsiveness continue to be the grey areas.
The sustainable development goals (SDGs) highlight the critical role of governance across all sectors, including health. 1 SDG 16 concerns: (i) promoting the rule of law; (ii) preventing corrupt practices; (iii) developing accountable and transparent institutions; (iv) ensuring responsive, inclusive and participatory decision-making processes; and (v) ensuring public access to information. In addition, SDG 3 incorporates the target of achieving universal health coverage (UHC), including access for all to safe, effective, good-quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines. 2 Robust public accountability and participation mechanisms are widely accepted to be indispensable for pursuing UHC. 3 At least half the world’s population still lacks access to good-quality essential services, such as those providing medicines to protect and promote health. 4 In many parts of the world, out-of-pocket health expenditure remains high and an estimated 800 million people spend more than 10% of their household budget on health care. 4 6 Since medicines often make up a large portion of health spending, improving access to medicines is central to achieving UHC.
The 2010 World Health Report stated that an estimated 20of potential health gains from health spending are lost through inefficiencies, such as: (i) the underuse of generic medicines and the overuse of overpriced medicines; 7 (ii) the availability of substandard and falsified medical products; (iii) inappropriate and ineffective prescribing; and (iv) losses from the health system due to waste, corruption and fraud. 8 , 9 In the absence of good governance, the pharmaceutical system, with its numerous stakeholders and complex networks, is particularly vulnerable to such inefficiencies, particularly to losses from corruption. 10 , 11 Weak institutional capacity for implementing guidelines and standard operating procedures contributes to inadequate performance. Moreover, corruption, which is defined by Transparency International as the abuse of entrusted power for private gain, 12 reduces the resources available for medicines: it lowers the government’s capacity to provide good-quality essential medicines and contributes to medicines being out of stock or inaccessible. Fig. 1 shows examples of vulnerabilities in the pharmaceutical system. 13
Potential vulnerabilities in the pharmaceutical system
Inefficiency of Bureaucracy
Bureaucracy is inevitable in any society or state, an inseparable part of an organized society.16 But the bureaucracy of Bangladesh is not efficient in management and administration. The capacity of policy implementation of our bureaucracy is very poor. Bureaucrats are not accountable and transparent to the people. Lack of bureaucratic accountability can be attributed inter-alia to bureaucratic corruption. But there is no effective mechanism to make them accountable and transparent.
Transparent and accountable governance can help development. In countries where the rule of law is strong, progress has been made towards achieving the MDGs. Indeed, rule of law is just as important as economic growth. The research compared MDG achievements with the aggregated value of scores given to countries in the section of the 2011 Global Integrity Report covering anti-corruption. It also compared MDG achievement with per capita GPD growth. The results showed that good governance is just as important as economic growth in reducing poverty.
When it comes to access and use of information, a more informed public is correlated with reductions in the number of children dying before five and better maternal health.
Information is also associated with the power government exercises. By restricting information, people within government become more powerful that those who are without it. Thus, demand for transparency and information is also about sharing of power. It is possible to misuse power when it is concentrated rather than when it is shared among a broader stream of people. As information grows, the arbitrariness of government tends to reduce.
Good governance entails the accountability of those who have been entrusted with certain duties and powers. Since the public participates in the decision making through the elected representatives and through the appointed decision makers, these decision makers are accountable to the public for the use of their powers. The level of this accountability may however differ in accordance with the organization in question and the nature of the decision.
The private sector and civil society organizations must also be held accountable to the public and their institutional stakeholders. In general, an organization or an institution is accountable to those who will be affected by its decisions or actions.
Accountability cannot be enforced without transparency and the rule of law. Transparency refers to the taking decisions and enforcing them in accordance with rules and regulations and making the information with regard to such actions accessible for scrutiny by those the decisions affect. In simplistic terms, it means also that sufficient information is prov > Transparency depends on the building of a free flow of information. Processes, institutions and information are directly made accessible to those concerned with them and enough information is prov